Music Internal parasites in poultry will focus mostly on round worms, which infect the intestines and coccidiosis, which is caused by a protozean parasite that also infects the intestines. We find that susceptibility of poultry to coccidiosis and worms is very much age dependent and chickens, probably in the first month to two months of age are most susceptible. Adults generate an innate resistance to both of these parasites. Round worms, the life cycle starts with the chook ingesting an egg. The egg then hatches the worm hatchling, lives within the intestine, grows, feeds on secretions and cells from the fowl. That mature worm then secretes eggs which go out into the poultry faeces so to continue the life cycle. The damage caused by the feeding and the residing of the worms in the intestine causes enteritis, which is inflammation of the intestine, and that presents as diarrhoea but also ill-thrift or condition loss and that results from inability of the bird or reduced ability of the bird, to digest material from its feed due to the damage to the intestine. Death can result from round worm infection if the worm burden in the chicken is big enough to block the intestine. This is not so common but we need to be aware of this. The control of round worms in poultry focuses on the use of insectides and I’d most commonly use an in-water insecticide such as Nilverm which is a lavamizole product. However, we also need to consider the environment in an integrated approach to parasite management with respect to round worms. And that, that is considering how the birds become affected with the worm. When we worm, we ideally should clean or turn the litter in the sheds if they’re housed inside, which will reduce the burden on the bird. In range situations, it can be a bit harder, because it’s hard to manage the litter, thus it’s hard to manage the contact of the birds with the eggs, which is in the faeces, so if we can rotate ranges, so that birds are moving on to fresh pastures all the time, that will reduce the burden on the birds and also reduces our need to rely on insecticides or paracidocides to kill the worms. Similarly, coccidiosis needs to be considered in an integrated approach to control. So coccidiosis is caused by a microscopic protozoan parasite meaning it can’t be seen by the naked eye. The protozoan enters the bird, matures and replicates in the intestine similar to the round worm and is secreted in the faeces. So the damage caused in the intestine is an enteritis, an inflammation of the intestine, and we can see bloody diarrhoea and rapid loses of condition from infection with coccidiosis in poultry. Birds most susceptible to coccidiosis are young, probably within their first one to two months, months of age. We very much need to consider the environment in our approach to control of coccidiosis in poultry. Shed design which minimizes the chances of litter becoming wet, is hugely important in preventing this disease. In the event of an outbreak of coccidiosis I recommend removal of all litter from the shed and replacement with fresh litter, to reduce the burden of parasite on the animal. We should at all times try and limit our use of veterinary medicines in the absence of environmental control of the organisms to prolong the effectiveness of these agents. Additionally, in relation to coccidiosis, we find that in commercially formulated feeds for young poultry, they often contain a coccidiostat. This is different to a coccidiocide, in that it doesn’t kill the coccidiosis parasites, rather it, it slows their growth. And this is important in long term control of that parasite. Music .